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Kidney stones – Symptoms, causes, types, and treatment

Kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, are a common and painful urological condition that can affect individuals of all ages. These tiny, crystal-like deposits form in the kidneys when certain substances in the urine become concentrated, creating solid masses. While they are typically small enough to pass through the urinary tract without causing any significant discomfort, larger stones can lead to excruciating pain, urinary complications, and even more severe health issues.

Understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for kidney stones is crucial for those who may be at risk or have already experienced the discomfort and distress they can cause. In this discussion, we will delve into the intricate world of kidney stones, exploring their origins, symptoms, diagnosis, and management strategies to help individuals navigate this challenging medical condition.

What is Kidney Stone

A kidney stone, medically known as a renal calculus, is a solid, crystalline deposit that forms in the kidneys or urinary tract. These mineral-based formations typically develop when certain substances in the urine, such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid, become highly concentrated and aggregate into small, solid masses.

The size and composition of kidney stones can vary, with some being as small as a grain of sand and others growing to the size of a golf ball. While smaller stones can pass through the urinary system without causing significant discomfort, larger stones may obstruct the urinary tract, leading to intense pain, urinary issues, and potential complications if not managed promptly. The exact cause of kidney stone formation can vary from person to person, and multiple factors, including genetics, diet, and fluid intake, can influence their development.

Symptoms and signs of a kidney stone

The symptoms and signs of a kidney stone can vary depending on the size and location of the stone, but common indicators include:

Severe Pain

One of the most recognizable signs of a kidney stone is excruciating pain, often described as sharp, stabbing, or throbbing. This pain typically occurs in the back or side, below the ribcage, and can radiate to the lower abdomen and groin as the stone moves through the urinary tract.


Blood in the urine (hematuria) is a frequent symptom of kidney stones. The urine may appear pink, red, or brown due to the irritation and damage caused by the stone as it passes.

Frequent Urination

Individuals with kidney stones may experience a frequent and urgent need to urinate. Despite this urgency, they may pass only small amounts of urine.

Painful Urination

Discomfort or a burning sensation during urination can occur, particularly when the stone is near the bladder or urethra.

Cloudy or Foul-Smelling Urine

Kidney stones can lead to changes in the appearance and odor of urine.

Nausea and Vomiting

Some people with kidney stones may experience nausea and vomiting, especially when the pain is severe.

Fever and Chills

In cases where a kidney stone causes an infection or urinary blockage, fever and chills can develop, indicating a more serious condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Difficulty Passing Urine

A larger stone can obstruct the urinary tract, leading to difficulty in passing urine or complete urinary retention.

Groin or Testicular Pain

Men with kidney stones may feel pain in the testicles, while women may experience discomfort in the lower abdomen.

It’s essential to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a kidney stone, especially if you experience severe pain, persistent symptoms, or signs of infection. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans, to locate and assess the size of the stone. Treatment options range from conservative measures like pain management and increased fluid intake for small stones to medical procedures or surgery for larger or more problematic stones. Early diagnosis and appropriate intervention can help prevent complications and alleviate the distress associated with kidney stones.

Causes of kidney stones

Kidney stones can form due to a variety of factors, and the precise cause can vary from person to person. Some common causes and risk factors for kidney stone formation include:


Insufficient fluid intake can lead to concentrated urine, which increases the risk of kidney stone formation. Staying well-hydrated is crucial for preventing stones.


Certain dietary factors can contribute to kidney stone development. High intake of foods rich in oxalate (such as spinach, beets, and chocolate), purines (found in organ meats and some seafood), and salt can increase the risk.

Family History

A family history of kidney stones may increase an individual’s susceptibility to developing them. Genetic factors can play a role in the formation of stones.

Medical Conditions

Certain medical conditions can predispose someone to kidney stones. These include hyperparathyroidism, gout, urinary tract infections, and cystic kidney diseases.


Excess body weight is associated with an increased risk of kidney stones. Obesity can alter the way the body handles calcium and other minerals, promoting stone formation.

Inadequate Dietary Calcium

Paradoxically, a diet too low in calcium can lead to kidney stone formation. When the body lacks calcium, it may absorb more oxalate, which can contribute to stone formation.


Some medications, such as diuretics, antacids containing calcium, and certain antiretroviral drugs, can increase the risk of kidney stones.


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and certain kidney infections can lead to the formation of struvite stones, a type of kidney stone associated with bacterial infections.

Anatomical Abnormalities

Some individuals may have structural abnormalities in the urinary tract that make it more likely for stones to form.

Lifestyle Factors

Sedentary lifestyles and diets high in processed foods can contribute to obesity and other factors that increase the risk of kidney stone formation.

It’s essential to identify the specific cause or risk factors in individual cases of kidney stones to develop a tailored prevention and treatment plan. A healthcare provider can help determine the underlying causes through a combination of medical history, imaging studies, and blood or urine tests. Once the cause is identified, lifestyle changes and, in some cases, medication may be recommended to prevent the recurrence of kidney stones.

Types of kidney stones

Kidney stones can be classified into different types based on their composition. The four primary types of kidney stones are:

Calcium Oxalate Stones

These are the most common type of kidney stones, accounting for approximately 75-80% of all cases. They form when calcium combines with oxalate in the urine to create solid crystals. Various factors, including diet, genetics, and certain medical conditions, can influence their formation.

Calcium Phosphate Stones

These stones also consist of calcium, but instead of oxalate, they are formed from calcium and phosphate. They can result from metabolic conditions that affect the balance of calcium in the body.

Uric Acid Stones

Uric acid stones are composed primarily of uric acid, a waste product produced during the breakdown of purines in the body. Conditions like gout and diets high in purine-rich foods (e.g., organ meats and seafood) can increase uric acid levels and raise the risk of uric acid stone formation.

Struvite Stones

Struvite stones are usually caused by urinary tract infections (UTIs). They are composed of magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate. These stones can grow rapidly and become quite large. Treating the underlying infection is crucial to prevent their recurrence.

In addition to these primary types, there are other less common types of kidney stones, such as:

Cystine Stones

These rare stones are composed of cystine, an amino acid. They are typically associated with a hereditary disorder called cystinuria, which affects the reabsorption of cystine in the kidneys.

Xanthine Stones

Xanthine stones are exceedingly rare and are composed of xanthine, a compound that can accumulate in the urine due to a genetic disorder known as xanthinuria.

The type of kidney stone can influence the treatment approach and prevention strategies, as well as the likelihood of recurrence. Identifying the stone type is typically done through a stone analysis, which involves examining a passed or removed stone in a laboratory. Once the type is determined, healthcare providers can tailor their recommendations to help manage and prevent future kidney stones effectively.


The diagnosis of kidney stones typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and various diagnostic tests to confirm the presence of stones, determine their size and location, and identify any underlying causes or risk factors. Here’s an overview of the diagnostic process for kidney stones:

Medical History

Your healthcare provider will begin by taking a detailed medical history, which may include questions about your symptoms, family history of kidney stones, diet, and any relevant medical conditions or medications. This information helps in assessing your risk factors and guiding further evaluation.

Physical Examination

A physical examination can provide additional information, such as assessing for tenderness or pain in the abdomen or back, which may be indicative of kidney stone-related discomfort.

Imaging Studies

a. X-rays: X-rays can be used to detect the presence of kidney stones, particularly if they are composed of calcium or other radiopaque materials. X-ray imaging is less effective for identifying uric acid stones.

b. Ultrasound: Ultrasound is a non-invasive imaging method that can visualize the kidneys and urinary tract. It is often used to detect the presence and size of kidney stones. While it may not detect very small stones, it is a useful tool for initial screening.

c. CT Scan: Computed tomography (CT) scans provide detailed images of the urinary tract and are highly effective in identifying kidney stones, regardless of their composition. CT scans can precisely locate the stone, assess its size, and help plan treatment.

Urine Tests

Urinalysis can help identify blood in the urine (hematuria) and may reveal the presence of infection or conditions that contribute to stone formation. A 24-hour urine collection may be recommended to assess the levels of various substances that can promote or inhibit stone formation, such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid, and citrate.

Stone Analysis

If you have passed a stone or have undergone a surgical procedure to remove one, the stone can be sent to a laboratory for analysis. Stone analysis helps determine the stone’s composition, which is crucial for treatment and prevention strategies.

Blood Tests

Blood tests, including serum calcium, uric acid, and parathyroid hormone levels, may be conducted to identify any underlying metabolic disorders that can lead to stone formation.

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the healthcare provider can discuss appropriate treatment options and preventive measures based on the size, composition, and location of the kidney stones, as well as any underlying factors that may have contributed to their formation. Treatment approaches can range from conservative management, such as increased fluid intake and pain relief, to more invasive procedures for larger or obstructive stones.

How kidney stones are treated

The treatment of kidney stones depends on factors such as the size, location, composition of the stones, the severity of symptoms, and the patient’s overall health. There are various treatment approaches for kidney stones, including:

Watchful Waiting

Small kidney stones (less than 5mm in size) that are not causing severe symptoms may be left to pass naturally. Patients are often advised to drink plenty of fluids to help flush out the stone. Pain medication may be prescribed to manage discomfort during the passage.

Pain Management

For mild to moderate pain associated with kidney stones, over-the-counter or prescription pain medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or opioids, can provide relief while waiting for the stone to pass.

Medical Expulsion Therapy

Your healthcare provider may prescribe medications that help relax the ureter and facilitate the passage of the stone. Tamsulosin is a common medication used for this purpose.

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)

This non-invasive procedure uses shock waves to break kidney stones into smaller fragments, making it easier for them to pass through the urinary tract. It is typically used for stones less than 2 cm in size and located in the kidney or upper ureter.


In this minimally invasive procedure, a thin, flexible tube (ureteroscope) is inserted through the urethra and bladder into the ureter to directly visualize and remove or break up the stone using laser or other instruments.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

For larger or more complex stones, PCNL may be recommended. It involves making a small incision in the back to access the kidney and remove or break up the stone using specialized instruments.


Surgical removal of kidney stones is typically reserved for large stones, complex cases, or when other treatments have not been successful. Open surgery is rarely needed due to the availability of less invasive options.

Preventive Measures

After treatment, healthcare providers often work with patients to identify and address the underlying causes of kidney stone formation. This may include dietary modifications, increased fluid intake, and medications to manage specific risk factors (e.g., medications for hyperparathyroidism or gout).

Lifestyle Changes

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, which includes a balanced diet, adequate hydration, and regular exercise, can help reduce the risk of future kidney stone formation.

The choice of treatment depends on the individual circumstances, and the healthcare provider will work with the patient to determine the most appropriate course of action. Preventive measures are crucial to reduce the risk of recurrent kidney stones, and healthcare providers often provide guidance on long-term dietary and lifestyle changes to help avoid future episodes.


The management of kidney stones typically involves several stages, from diagnosis to treatment and prevention. Here’s an overview of the stages involved in dealing with kidney stones:


  • This is the initial stage where the healthcare provider assesses the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and risk factors.
  • Diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies (X-rays, ultrasound, or CT scans), urinalysis, and blood tests, are used to confirm the presence of kidney stones, determine their size and composition, and identify any underlying causes or risk factors.

Pain Management:

  • In cases of acute pain caused by kidney stones, pain management is often the first step. Medications, such as NSAIDs or opioids, can be prescribed to alleviate discomfort.

Treatment Decision:

  • The choice of treatment depends on factors like the size, location, and composition of the stones, as well as the patient’s overall health and the severity of symptoms.


  • Treatment options may include watchful waiting (for small stones), medical expulsion therapy, ESWL (shock wave lithotripsy), ureteroscopy, PCNL (percutaneous nephrolithotomy), or surgery, depending on the specific circumstances.

Stone Removal or Passage:

  • This stage involves the physical removal or natural passage of the kidney stones. It can be accomplished through various medical procedures, as described in the treatment options section, or by allowing small stones to pass naturally, with the aid of increased fluid intake and pain relief.

Recovery and Follow-Up:

  • After a procedure or once the stone has passed, patients may experience a recovery period during which they are monitored for any complications or recurrence.
  • Follow-up appointments with healthcare providers are important to ensure that the patient is recovering well and to address any ongoing concerns.


  • Prevention is a crucial stage in the management of kidney stones. Healthcare providers work with patients to identify the underlying causes of stone formation.
  • Preventive measures may include dietary modifications, increased fluid intake, and medications to manage specific risk factors or metabolic conditions.

Lifestyle Changes:

  • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and adequate hydration, is essential for preventing the recurrence of kidney stones.

Long-Term Management:

  • For individuals at risk of recurrent kidney stones, long-term management strategies are put in place. This may involve periodic monitoring, lifestyle adjustments, and ongoing preventive measures.

The stages involved in managing kidney stones aim to provide relief from symptoms, remove or facilitate the passage of stones, address underlying causes, and ultimately prevent the recurrence of stones. The specific course of action is tailored to each patient’s unique circumstances and needs.

Foods that can cause kidney stones

Certain foods can contribute to the formation of kidney stones due to their high content of substances like oxalate, purines, and salt. Here are some foods that can increase the risk of kidney stones:

High-Oxalate Foods

  • Spinach
  • Beets
  • Swiss chard
  • Rhubarb
  • Almonds
  • Miso soup
  • Chocolate
  • Tea

Foods Rich in Purines

  • Organ meats (liver, kidney)
  • Anchovies
  • Sardines
  • Gravy

High-Sodium Foods

  • Processed foods (chips, canned soups)
  • Fast food
  • Deli meats
  • Cheese

High-Fructose Foods and Drinks

  • Sugary sodas
  • Certain fruit juices

Animal Protein (in excess)

  • Red meat
  • Poultry
  • Fish

Caffeine and Dark Colas

  • Excessive caffeine consumption can contribute to stone formation.

Dairy Products (in excess)

  • High-calcium diets, particularly if lacking in other nutrients, can increase the risk of calcium-based stones.

Vitamin C Supplements (in excessive doses)

  • Large doses of vitamin C supplements may increase oxalate levels in the urine.

Salt Substitutes

  • High-potassium salt substitutes can be high in potassium, which can lead to increased calcium excretion.

Alcoholic Beverages (in excess)

  • Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to dehydration, which can increase the risk of stone formation.

It’s important to note that not everyone who consumes these foods will develop kidney stones, and individual susceptibility varies. However, if you are prone to kidney stones or have a history of them, it’s advisable to work with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian to develop a dietary plan that helps reduce the risk of stone formation while maintaining a balanced and healthy diet.

Ashish Matoliya
Ashish Matoliyahttp://ashishealth.com
Ashish brings a unique blend of expertise, empathy, and practical guidance to his writing. His articles are not just informative but also designed to inspire and motivate. Whether you're looking for workout tips, strategies for managing mental health, or seeking to improve your overall well-being, Ashish's content is your roadmap to a healthier and happier life.


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