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Laryngeal Cancer: Causes, Risk Factors and Symptoms

Laryngeal cancer is a type of cancer that originates in the larynx, or voice box. The larynx plays a crucial role in vocalization and breathing, making it an essential part of the human anatomy. Laryngeal cancer typically begins in the cells lining the inside of the larynx and can manifest as a variety of symptoms, including hoarseness, persistent sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and even a lump or mass in the neck.

The primary risk factors for this type of cancer include smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, although exposure to certain environmental toxins can also contribute to its development. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for better outcomes, often involving a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Increasing awareness about the risk factors and symptoms of laryngeal cancer is crucial in the prevention and management of this disease.

What are the symptoms of laryngeal cancer?

Laryngeal cancer, also known as cancer of the larynx or throat cancer, can present with various symptoms. It’s important to note that the presence of these symptoms does not necessarily mean you have laryngeal cancer, as they can also be associated with other conditions. If you experience any of the following persistent symptoms, it’s essential to consult a healthcare professional for a proper evaluation and diagnosis. Common symptoms of laryngeal cancer may include:

  • Hoarseness or voice changes: Persistent hoarseness or a noticeable change in your voice is one of the most common early signs of laryngeal cancer.
  • Sore throat: A persistent or chronic sore throat that does not improve with time or treatment.
  • Cough: A persistent, chronic cough that doesn’t seem to be related to respiratory infections or other common causes.
  • Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia): Difficulty or pain when swallowing, which may be related to the tumor blocking the passage.
  • Ear pain: Ear pain (otalgia) that is not due to an ear infection but is associated with laryngeal cancer as the tumor can affect nearby nerves.
  • Lump in the neck or throat: A visible or palpable lump or mass in the neck or throat area, which could be an enlarged lymph node due to the cancer’s spread.
  • Breathing difficulties: Wheezing, stridor (a high-pitched breathing sound), or shortness of breath may occur if the tumor obstructs the airway.
  • Weight loss: Unexplained weight loss may be associated with advanced laryngeal cancer.
  • Bad breath: Foul-smelling breath (halitosis) that persists even with good oral hygiene.

What causes laryngeal cancer?

Laryngeal cancer, also known as cancer of the larynx, is typically caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The primary risk factor for developing laryngeal cancer is tobacco use, including smoking and chewing tobacco. Alcohol consumption, especially when combined with smoking, further increases the risk. Other factors that can contribute to the development of laryngeal cancer include:

  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV): Certain strains of HPV have been associated with an increased risk of laryngeal cancer, particularly in younger individuals.
  • Occupational Exposures: Some individuals who are exposed to certain chemicals and substances in their workplaces, such as asbestos, wood dust, and paint fumes, may have a higher risk of laryngeal cancer.
  • Gender: Laryngeal cancer is more common in men than in women.
  • Age: The risk of laryngeal cancer increases with age, with most cases occurring in individuals over the age of 55.
  • Poor Diet: A diet low in fruits and vegetables may increase the risk of laryngeal cancer, as a diet rich in these foods is associated with a lower risk.
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): Chronic acid reflux may lead to irritation and changes in the cells of the larynx, potentially increasing the risk of cancer.

How is laryngeal cancer diagnosed?

Laryngeal cancer is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and various diagnostic tests. Here are the common steps and methods used in diagnosing laryngeal cancer:

Medical history and physical examination

The process often begins with a healthcare provider taking a detailed medical history, including questions about risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They will also perform a physical examination, which may include examining the throat and neck for any abnormalities or lumps.


A laryngoscopy or endoscopy is a procedure in which a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera on the end (endoscope) is used to examine the larynx (voice box) and surrounding areas. This allows the doctor to visualize the larynx and check for any abnormal growths, lesions, or tumors.

Imaging tests

  • Various imaging tests can be used to assess the extent and stage of the cancer. These may include:
  • CT (computed tomography) scan
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
  • PET (positron emission tomography) scan

These tests help determine the size and location of the tumor and whether it has spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant organs.


If suspicious lesions or tumors are found during the endoscopy or imaging tests, a biopsy is typically performed. During a biopsy, a small tissue sample is taken from the larynx for examination under a microscope. This helps confirm the presence of cancer and determine its type and grade.


Once laryngeal cancer is confirmed, it is important to determine its stage. The stage indicates the extent of the cancer and whether it has spread to nearby or distant tissues. Staging is crucial for treatment planning. Staging may involve further imaging tests and examination of lymph nodes in the neck.

Fine-needle aspiration (FNA)

If there are enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, a fine-needle aspiration may be performed to sample the lymph node tissue for cancer cells.

Additional tests

In some cases, other tests may be necessary to evaluate the patient’s overall health and fitness for treatment. These may include blood tests, pulmonary function tests, and cardiac evaluations.

What are the treatment options for laryngeal cancer?

Surgery: Surgical removal of the cancerous tissue is often the primary treatment for early-stage laryngeal cancer. There are different types of surgical procedures, including:

Cordectomy: Removal of part or all of the vocal cords.

Partial laryngectomy: Removal of part of the larynx.

Total laryngectomy: Removal of the entire larynx, which results in the loss of the ability to speak through the natural voice.

Radiation therapy: High-energy X-rays or other forms of radiation are used to target and destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be used alone or in combination with surgery or chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill or slow the growth of cancer cells. It is often used in cases where the cancer has spread to other parts of the body or when it is not possible to remove the tumor surgically.

Targeted therapy: This approach involves the use of drugs that specifically target the proteins or other molecules involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells.

Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy drugs help the patient’s immune system recognize and attack cancer cells. This approach is still being researched and may be used in some cases.

Voice rehabilitation: For patients who have undergone surgery that affects their ability to speak, voice rehabilitation therapy can help them learn new ways to communicate, such as through voice prosthesis, electronic devices, or esophageal speech.

Supportive care: Managing symptoms and side effects, such as pain, difficulty swallowing, or changes in appearance, is an important part of cancer treatment. Supportive care may involve working with a team of healthcare professionals, including speech therapists, nutritionists, and pain management specialists.

How can I prevent laryngeal cancer?

Quit Smoking: Tobacco smoke, including cigarettes, cigars, and pipes, is one of the most significant risk factors for laryngeal cancer. If you smoke, quitting is the single most effective way to reduce your risk.

Avoid Secondhand Smoke: Exposure to secondhand smoke can also increase your risk, so try to minimize exposure to smoke from others.

Limit Alcohol Consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption is another major risk factor for laryngeal cancer. Reducing your alcohol intake or abstaining from it can help lower your risk.

Stay Hydrated: Drinking plenty of water and staying hydrated may help reduce your risk, as chronic dehydration can potentially irritate the larynx.

Healthy Diet: A diet rich in fruits and vegetables, particularly those high in antioxidants and vitamins, can support your overall health. Some studies suggest that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of laryngeal cancer.

Reduce Processed Meats: Some research has indicated that consumption of processed meats, like bacon and hot dogs, may be associated with a higher risk of laryngeal cancer. Reducing your intake of these foods may be beneficial.

Protect Your Voice: If your job or hobbies involve straining your voice, take steps to protect it. Avoid shouting or speaking loudly for extended periods and give your voice rest when needed.

Screening and Early Detection: Regular check-ups with your healthcare provider can help detect any early signs or symptoms. If you have a family history of laryngeal cancer or other risk factors, discuss your concerns with your healthcare provider.

The Bottom Line

The bottom line for laryngeal health is early detection and proper care to prevent and address voice and breathing disorders, as well as to safeguard overall well-being and quality of life.

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Ashish Matoliya
Ashish Matoliyahttp://ashishealth.com
Ashish brings a unique blend of expertise, empathy, and practical guidance to his writing. His articles are not just informative but also designed to inspire and motivate. Whether you're looking for workout tips, strategies for managing mental health, or seeking to improve your overall well-being, Ashish's content is your roadmap to a healthier and happier life.


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