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Ovarian Cancer: Symptoms, Causes, Stages, Treatment and more

Ovarian cancer is a complex and often silent adversary that affects the ovaries, the vital reproductive organs of women. This form of cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the ovaries, leading to the formation of tumors. Ovarian cancer is notorious for its subtle early symptoms, making it challenging to detect in its initial stages. As a result, it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, when the disease has already spread beyond the ovaries.

Despite these challenges, advances in medical research and improved screening techniques are gradually increasing our understanding of ovarian cancer and enhancing early detection and treatment options. It remains essential for women to be aware of the risk factors, undergo regular check-ups, and consult with healthcare professionals to ensure the best possible outcomes in the battle against this formidable disease.

Symptoms of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is often referred to as the “silent killer” because it can be difficult to detect in its early stages. Many of its symptoms are non-specific and can be mistaken for other less serious conditions. However, it’s important to be aware of the common symptoms associated with ovarian cancer. If you experience any of the following symptoms, especially if they persist for several weeks, you should consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation:

Abdominal pain: Persistent or frequent pelvic and abdominal pain, often described as a dull ache or discomfort.

Bloating: Persistent or frequent bloating, feeling of fullness, or swelling in the abdomen.

Changes in bowel habits: Sudden and unexplained changes in bowel habits, such as constipation or diarrhea.

Changes in urinary habits: Frequent and urgent urination or difficulty emptying the bladder.

Loss of appetite or feeling full quickly: A sudden decrease in appetite or feeling full even when you haven’t eaten much.

Unexplained weight loss: Significant and unintentional weight loss.

Fatigue: Persistent and unexplained fatigue.

Back pain: Ongoing lower back pain may be a symptom of ovarian cancer in advanced stages.

Pain during sexual intercourse: Pain or discomfort during sexual activity.

Menstrual changes: Unusual changes in your menstrual cycle, such as irregular periods or post-menopausal bleeding.

It’s important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by other less serious conditions, but if they persist or worsen over time, it’s essential to seek medical evaluation. Early detection of ovarian cancer can significantly improve the chances of successful treatment. If you have a family history of ovarian cancer or other risk factors, it’s advisable to discuss your concerns with a healthcare provider. Additionally, regular gynecological check-ups and screening tests can be helpful in detecting ovarian cancer in its early stages.

Causes of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a complex disease with no single known cause. It often develops due to a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. While the exact causes of ovarian cancer are not fully understood, several risk factors have been identified that may increase a person’s likelihood of developing this type of cancer:

Age: Ovarian cancer is most commonly diagnosed in women who are over the age of 50, with the highest risk occurring in those over 60.

Family history and genetics: A family history of ovarian, breast, or certain other cancers can increase the risk of ovarian cancer. Inherited gene mutations, particularly in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, are strongly associated with an increased risk of both ovarian and breast cancers.

Personal history of breast cancer: Women who have had breast cancer may have a slightly higher risk of developing ovarian cancer, especially if they carry certain genetic mutations.

Reproductive and menstrual factors: Factors that affect a woman’s reproductive history and hormone levels can influence ovarian cancer risk. These factors include:

  • Early onset of menstruation (before age 12)
  • Late onset of menopause (after age 50)
  • Never having been pregnant (nulliparity)
  • Infertility
  • Use of fertility drugs
  • Use of hormone replacement therapy

Use of birth control: Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) have been associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, especially if used for an extended period.

Tubal ligation and hysterectomy: Procedures like tubal ligation (tying the fallopian tubes) and hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.

Endometriosis: Women with endometriosis, a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, may have an increased risk of developing certain types of ovarian cancer.

Obesity: Being overweight or obese may be a risk factor for ovarian cancer.

Smoking: Some studies have suggested that women who smoke may have a slightly higher risk of developing ovarian cancer.

Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins and pollutants may play a role in ovarian cancer development, though the exact mechanisms are not well-defined.

Types of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a broad term that encompasses several different types of cancer that originate in the ovaries. The main types of ovarian cancer are classified based on the cells from which they develop. The three primary types of ovarian cancer are:

Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

This is the most common type of ovarian cancer, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases. It develops from the cells that line the surface of the ovaries and the fallopian tubes. Epithelial ovarian cancer is further categorized into various subtypes, including serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinomas.

Germ Cell Ovarian Cancer

Germ cell tumors develop from the cells that produce eggs (ova) in the ovaries. These tumors are relatively rare and tend to occur in younger women. Common subtypes of germ cell tumors include teratomas, dysgerminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas.

Stromal Ovarian Cancer

Stromal tumors originate from the connective tissue that supports the ovaries and produces hormones. The most well-known type of stromal tumor is granulosa cell tumor. These tumors can be hormonally active and may lead to hormone-related symptoms.

In addition to these primary types of ovarian cancer, there are also some rare forms and subtypes, including:

  • Mixed Epithelial and Germ Cell Tumors: These tumors contain a mixture of both epithelial and germ cell cancer cells.
  • Small Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary: This is a highly aggressive and rare type of ovarian cancer that primarily affects young women.
  • Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumors: These tumors are also rare and may produce androgen hormones, leading to masculinization symptoms.
  • Undifferentiated Ovarian Cancer: This type is characterized by poorly differentiated or undifferentiated cancer cells.

Treatment for ovarian cancer

Treatment for ovarian cancer typically depends on the stage of the cancer, the type of ovarian cancer, the patient’s overall health, and their preferences. The primary treatment options for ovarian cancer include:


  • Debulking surgery: In most cases, the primary treatment for ovarian cancer involves surgical removal of the tumor and any affected tissue. The goal is to remove as much of the cancer as possible. In some cases, a complete “debulking” may not be possible due to advanced stage or extensive spread of the cancer.
  • Hysterectomy: If the cancer is confined to the ovaries, a hysterectomy may be performed to remove the uterus and both ovaries.
  • Lymph node removal: Lymph nodes in the pelvis and abdomen may be removed to check for the spread of cancer.


Chemotherapy is often used in addition to surgery. It involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells or inhibit their growth. It may be administered before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) to shrink the tumor, after surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy) to eliminate any remaining cancer cells, or as the primary treatment for advanced cases.

Targeted Therapy

Some cases of ovarian cancer may respond well to targeted therapies that specifically target certain proteins or pathways involved in cancer growth.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy may be used in certain situations to target cancer cells with high-energy X-rays or other forms of radiation.

Hormone Therapy

Hormone therapy is generally used for a specific type of ovarian cancer called granulosa cell tumor, which can be hormone-sensitive.


Immunotherapy is an evolving field in cancer treatment, and it is being investigated for ovarian cancer as well. Immunotherapy drugs help the immune system recognize and attack cancer cells.

Palliative Care

Palliative care is an important part of treatment, especially for advanced-stage ovarian cancer. It focuses on managing symptoms, improving quality of life, and providing emotional support.

Diagnosing ovarian cancer

Diagnosing ovarian cancer typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examinations, and various diagnostic tests. Ovarian cancer can be challenging to diagnose in its early stages because symptoms are often vague and nonspecific. Here are the common steps and tests used in diagnosing ovarian cancer:

Medical History and Physical Examination

  • Your healthcare provider will begin by discussing your medical history, including any risk factors or symptoms you may be experiencing. Common symptoms of ovarian cancer can include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel or urinary habits, and unexplained weight loss.
  • A physical examination, including a pelvic exam, will be performed to check for any abnormalities in the pelvic area.

Blood Tests

  • A blood test may be done to measure the level of a tumor marker called CA-125. While elevated CA-125 levels can be a sign of ovarian cancer, they can also be elevated for other reasons, such as benign conditions or non-ovarian cancers.

Imaging Tests

  • Transvaginal Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create images of the ovaries and can help identify the presence of ovarian masses or tumors.
  • CT Scan or MRI: These imaging tests can provide more detailed information about the size and location of any ovarian tumors and whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.


  • To confirm the presence of ovarian cancer, a tissue sample (biopsy) is usually required. This is typically done through surgery, often a procedure called a laparoscopy or a laparotomy.
  • During surgery, a biopsy is taken from the suspicious ovarian mass or other abnormal tissues in the pelvic and abdominal area.


  • If ovarian cancer is confirmed, the next step is to determine the stage of the cancer. This involves assessing the extent of the disease, including whether it has spread to nearby organs or distant sites.
  • Staging helps guide treatment decisions and prognosis.

Additional Tests

  • Your healthcare provider may order additional tests, such as a chest X-ray or a PET scan, to determine if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Stages of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer can be categorized into several stages based on the extent of the disease at the time of diagnosis. The most commonly used staging system for ovarian cancer is the FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) staging system. This system classifies ovarian cancer into four main stages:

  1. Stage I: This is the earliest stage of ovarian cancer, where the cancer is confined to one or both ovaries. It can be further divided into:
    • Stage IA: The cancer is limited to one ovary and has not spread outside the ovary.
    • Stage IB: The cancer is present in both ovaries but has not spread beyond them.
    • Stage IC: The cancer is in one or both ovaries with tumor rupture or spillage during surgery, or with the presence of cancer cells on the ovarian surface.
  2. Stage II: At this stage, the cancer has spread beyond the ovaries but is still within the pelvis. Stage II can be further divided into:
    • Stage IIA: The cancer has extended to the uterus or fallopian tubes.
    • Stage IIB: The cancer has spread to other pelvic tissues.
  3. Stage III: Ovarian cancer at this stage has spread to the abdominal cavity or nearby lymph nodes. Stage III can be further divided into:
    • Stage IIIA: Cancer has spread to the peritoneal surface, with tiny implants.
    • Stage IIIB: Cancer is found in the peritoneal surface, with larger implants or lymph node involvement.
    • Stage IIIC: This is an advanced stage with extensive peritoneal involvement, including tumor deposits larger than 2 cm in the abdomen, or lymph node involvement.
  4. Stage IV: This is the most advanced stage of ovarian cancer. Cancer has spread to distant sites beyond the abdomen, such as the liver, lungs, or other organs.

Ovarian cancer survival rates

Ovarian cancer survival rates can vary widely depending on several factors, including the stage at which the cancer is diagnosed, the type of ovarian cancer, the patient’s age and overall health, and the treatments received. Survival rates are typically expressed as percentages, indicating the proportion of people who survive a certain period after diagnosis. The most commonly used timeframes are 5-year survival rates, which represent the percentage of patients who are alive 5 years after diagnosis.

Here are some general statistics for ovarian cancer survival rates:

  1. Overall Survival Rates: The 5-year overall survival rate for ovarian cancer is around 47%. This means that, on average, 47% of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer will be alive five years after their diagnosis.
  2. Stage-Specific Survival Rates: Ovarian cancer is typically categorized into four stages, with stage I being the earliest and stage IV being the most advanced. Survival rates vary significantly by stage:
    • Stage I: The 5-year survival rate for stage I ovarian cancer is around 92%. This is because the cancer is localized and has not spread beyond the ovaries.
    • Stage II: The 5-year survival rate for stage II ovarian cancer is around 76%. At this stage, the cancer has spread beyond the ovaries but is still within the pelvis.
    • Stage III: The 5-year survival rate for stage III ovarian cancer is around 36%. In this stage, the cancer has spread to the peritoneum and may involve lymph nodes.
    • Stage IV: The 5-year survival rate for stage IV ovarian cancer is approximately 17%. This is the most advanced stage, and the cancer has spread to distant organs.
  3. Histologic Type: Ovarian cancer can have different histologic subtypes, with survival rates varying by subtype. High-grade serous carcinoma is the most common subtype and tends to have lower survival rates compared to some of the less common subtypes.
  4. Age: Younger women with ovarian cancer often have better survival rates than older women.

Ovarian cancer statistics

Ovarian cancer is a significant health concern, with statistics reflecting its impact on women worldwide. It is the eighth most common cancer among women and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Each year, approximately 295,000 women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer, and over 185,000 lose their lives to this disease. The survival rate is relatively low, with less than 50% of women diagnosed surviving beyond five years, primarily due to the lack of early symptoms and effective screening methods. Ovarian cancer disproportionately affects older women, with the majority of cases occurring in those over 50. These statistics underscore the urgent need for continued research and awareness efforts to improve early detection and treatment options for this challenging disease.

Also Read: Penile Cancer: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Stages and Treatment

Ashish Matoliya
Ashish Matoliyahttp://ashishealth.com
Ashish brings a unique blend of expertise, empathy, and practical guidance to his writing. His articles are not just informative but also designed to inspire and motivate. Whether you're looking for workout tips, strategies for managing mental health, or seeking to improve your overall well-being, Ashish's content is your roadmap to a healthier and happier life.


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